Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Amazing Facts About Moon

  1. The Moon is approximately 238, 750 miles (384, 400 kilometres) from earth.
  2. The Moon’s size varies depends upon its position, whether it is at perigee or apogee. Generally, the Moon is 14% bigger in its size, when it is at its perigee.
  3. Temperatures on the Moon vary drastically, as there is no atmosphere on the Moon.  The temperature ranges from temperatures -200°F to more than 200 °F.
  4. 3, 475 km is the diameter of the Moon, which is roughly four times smaller than Earth.
  5. From Earth, both the Sun and the Moon look about same size, this is because, the Moon is 400 times smaller than the Sun, but also 400 times closer to Earth.
  6.  An astronaut’s footprint could last for millions of years, as there is no wind or water on the surface of the Moon.
  7.  A full day on the Moon, lasts about 29 Earth days on an average, from one sunrise to next.
  8. We can see only one side of the Moon, and believe that there is a dark side of the Moon.  But this is a myth because the Moon rotates around on its own axis in exactly the same time it takes to orbit the Earth.
  9. The Moon has weaker gravitational force than earth, it has only one sixth of Earth’s gravitational force, that is why astronauts can jump so high.
  10. 12 people set their foot on the Moon, and the interesting part is all are American males.
  11. The Moon is moving approximately 3.8 cm away from our planet every year
  12. Of the 6 flags planted on moon, 5 of them are still standing. But they became white due to radiation from the sun.

Monday, September 26, 2016

Amazing Facts About Nutrients That Human Body Needs


There are seven main classes of nutrients that the body needs. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water. It is important to consume these seven nutrients on a daily basis to build and maintain health. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the body’s most important source of energy. they are the polyhydroxy organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in which the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen hydrogen is 2:1.
The main sources of carbohydrates are plants, e.g., starch (storage forms carbohydrate of chlorophyll containing plants), sugars, cereals, potatoes, legumes, millets, roots and other vegetables. Sugars are found in fruits, juice, cane, honey, palm, milk, etc.

Functions of Carbohydrates

  • Glucose act as energy yielding compounds, the major fuel of the tissue, constitutes the structural material of the organism, converted to other carbohydrates having highly specific functions.
  • Glycogen acts as important storage of food material of the organism.
  • Play a key role in the metabolism of amino-acids and fatty acids.
  • Act as protective function-mucosubstance.
  • Act as intermediates in respiration and carbohydrates metabolism e.g., (trioses).
  • Participate in lipid synthesis (Creation of fatty acid)
  • Pentoses - Synthesis of nucleic acid; Some co-enzymes (e.g., NAD, FAD, FMN, etc.); ATP, ADP, AMP, and also synthesis of polysaccharides.

Fats

Fat (lipids) provides insulation for the body and padding around internal organs. Some dietary fat is needed as a source of essential fatty acids for fat soluble vitamins. Several nutrients are found in fat, including vitamins A, D, E, K and essential fatty acids. Fats are important in our diet, particularly triglycerides and cholesterol. Triglycerides are the main form in which fats stored in the body.

Fats are either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats have been linked to heart disease and raise the level of cholesterol in blood. This is the kind of fat you don’t want to eat. Some vegetable foods contain saturated fat like nuts, margarine, coconut oil, or palm oil and chocolate. Saturated fats and cholesterol are found in animal foods like butter, cheese, red meat and animal fat. The combination of too much saturated fat and cholesterol is bad for you. Cholesterol is made in the liver of animals and is found only in animal foods.

Unsaturated fats in small amounts are better for you than saturated fats. Unsaturated fats are found mostly in oils like canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, peanut, safflower, sesame, soybean and sunflower.


Proteins

Proteins help muscle tissue develop and function. Protein is needed to make hair, skin, nails, muscles, organs, blood cells, nerve, bone and brain tissues, enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.
Protein and amino acids are found in both plant and animal foods. Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins.

The constituent elements of proteins are carbon (54%), hydrogen (7%), nitrogen (16%), oxygen (22%) and some may contain sulpher (1%) or phosphorus (0.6%). They are macromolecules of high MW and consisting of chains of amino acids e.g., hemoglobin, albumin, globulin, enzymes, etc.
They are found in Peas, beans, poultry, cereals, lentils, milk, cheese, eggs, meat, wet and dry fishes, and nuts etc.

Function of Proteins

  • Proteins as enzymes - accelerate the rate of metabolic reactions. 
  • As structural cables - provide mechanical support both within cells and outside. 
  • As hormones, growth factors - perform regulatory functions and gene activators. 
  • As hormone receptors and transporters-determine what a cell reacts to and what types of substance enter or leave the cell. 
  • As contract element -form the machinery for biological movements. 
  • Others - act as the defense against infections by protein antibodies, service as toxins, form blood clots through thrombin, fibrinogen and other protein factors, absorb or refract light and transport substances from one part of the body to another. 
  • Constitute about half of the dry weight of most organisms and maintain growth.
  • Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. 
  • Act as acid base balance. 
  • They perform hereditary transmission by nucleoproteins of the cell nucleus. 
  • Most fibrous protein plays structural roles in skin, connective tissue of fibers such as hair, silk or wool.

Vitamins 

Vitamins are complex organic compounds found in small amounts in most foods. Vitamins do not contain calories and therefore do not provide energy. However, vitamins are important for metabolism and for our organs to work properly. Vitamins C, folic acid, and all of the B vitamins are water soluble. Water soluble vitamins are passed out of the body in urine. They do not build up and harm the body. Vitamins A, D, E, K, are fat soluble. They are stored in fat cells. Too much of these vitamins in our system can lead to toxic build-up.


Minerals 

Minerals do not contain calories, but are important to many body functions. Major minerals include calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, sulphur, and sodium. These minerals are found in a variety of foods including milk, meat, poultry, fish, and green, leafy vegetables. Other minerals are needed in small amounts: they include iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt etc. Trace minerals are found in shellfish, seafood, whole grains and legumes. Minerals often work together. Too much of one mineral may upset the balance of other minerals.


Calories 

All food provides calories. All calories provide energy. However, calories that do not come with vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids, and fiber are called “empty calories”. Empty calories give you energy without nutrients. Table sugar and alcohol are examples of empty calories. Eating too many foods with empty calories can cause health problems.

That’s why it is important to learn how to choose foods that provide nutrients and calories. All calories, no matter where they come from, give you energy. If you take in more energy (calories) than you spend (burn off through exercise) you gain weight. If you take in less energy than you spend, you lose weight.


one gram of protein has 4 calories
one gram of carbohydrate has 4 calories
one gram of alcohol has 7 calories
one gram of fat has 9 calories 

Carbohydrates and proteins are better sources of nutrients and have less than half the calories of fat. That’s why foods high in fat are also high in calories.

Fibre

Dietary fiber, also known as roughage or bulk, includes the parts of plant foods your body can't digest or absorb. Unlike other food components, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates — which your body breaks down and absorbs — fiber isn't digested by your body. Instead, it passes relatively intact through your stomach, small intestine and colon and out of your body.

Fiber is commonly classified as soluble, which dissolves in water, or insoluble, which doesn't dissolve.

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Amazing Facts About Human Heart

1.     The heart is a pump, which moves the blood. The arteries and veins are the pipes through which the blood flows. The lungs provide a place to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which functions as a pump for the movement of blood through the body.

2.     The heart is located in the centre of the chest, usually pointing slightly left, due to which left lung is slightly located down than the right one.

3.     The average adult heart beats 72 times a minute; 100,000 times a day; 3,600,000 times a year; and 2.5 billion times during a lifetime.

4.     Though weighing only 250-300 grams on average, a healthy heart pumps 2,000 gallons (6000-7500 litres) of blood through 60,000 miles of blood vessels each day.

5.     Every day, the heart creates enough energy to drive a truck 20 miles. In a lifetime, that is equivalent to driving to the moon and back.

6.     Because the heart has its own electrical impulse, it can continue to beat even when separated from the body, as long as it has an adequate supply of oxygen.

7.     The heart pumps blood to almost all of the body’s 75 trillion cells. Only the corneas receive no blood supply.

8.     You heart is about the size of your two hands clasped together.

9.     During an average lifetime, the heart will pump nearly 1.5 million barrels of blood—enough to fill 200 train tank cars.

10.  The heart begins beating at four weeks after conception and does not stop until death.

11.  A new born baby has about one cup of blood in circulation. An adult human has about four to five quarts which the heart pumps to all the tissues and to and from the lungs in about one minute while beating 72 times.

12.  A woman’s heart typically beats faster than a man’s. The heart of an average man beats approximately 70 times a minute, whereas the average woman has a heart rate of 78 beats per minute.

13.  Blood is actually a tissue. When the body is at rest, it takes only six seconds for the blood to go from the heart to the lungs and back, only eight seconds for it to go the brain and back, and only 16 seconds for it to reach the toes and travel all the way back to the heart.

14.  Blue whale has the largest heart weighting around 1500 pounds.

15.  In 1903, physiologist Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) invented the electrocardiograph, which measures electric current in the heart.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Amazing Facts About *STARS*


  • The Sun is the closest star. Located a mere 150 million km away from earth.
  • Every star you see in the night sky is bigger and brighter than our sun. that is the reason you can see them.
  • There are many, many stars, appox. 400 billion stars in our galaxy and there could be as many as 500 billion galaxies in the Universe, and each of which could have as many or more stars as our galaxy.
  • They are very far from us. If you tried to hitch a ride on the fastest spacecraft ever launched from Earth, it would still take you more than 70,000 years to get there from earth.
  • They are very massive. Some stars that are 100 times more massive than our Sun. These stars also can output about a million times more energy than our sun, while still maintaining the same radius.
  • Eta Carinae is one of the largest stars in the known galaxy, it is designated as a hyper-giant.
  • Another hyper-giant star is designated as Pistol, it shines even brighter than Eta Carinae, at about 10 billion times more than our sun. It emits such high amounts of radiation that scientists have already declared it impossible for anything to live in such a system.
  • The color of a star can tell an observer a lot of things, as the color of a star can show give an idea of how much mass it has, luminosity and other interesting data.
  • The coolest stars in the universe are red, and they sit at around 3,500 kelvin (a special temperature measurement used for stars).
  • Opposite to that, the hottest stars are blue due to their incredible mass and the amount of chemical reactions occurring within them. They burn at around 6,000 kelvin.
  • The stars that have the shortest life spans are the most massive. They lend their mass to a high density of chemicals; as such they burn their fuel much quicker than smaller stars.
  • Stars don’t twinkle (twinkle-twinkle little star is not twinkling and not little also). As the light from a star passes through the atmosphere, especially when the star appears near the horizon, it must pass through many layers of often rapidly differing density. This has the effect of deflecting the light slightly as it were a ball in a pinball machine. The light eventually gets to your eyes, but every deflection causes it to change slightly in color and intensity. The result is “twinkling.” Above the Earth’s atmosphere, stars do not twinkle.


Sunday, July 24, 2016

Amazing Facts About Dreams!!!


1. You cannot snore and dream at the same time.

2. Not everyone can dream in color.

3. Your body burns more calories sleeping than it does in the day time.

4. You can not control your dreams.

5. Just like men, women can have orgasms during dreams.

6. By the time we die, most of us will have spent a quarter of a century asleep, of which 6 years or more will have been spent dreaming and almost all of those dreams are forgotten (almost 90%) upon waking.

7. The average person has about 1,460 dreams a year. That’s about four per night.

8. Modern research has shown that a sharp decrease in daily calories results in fewer nocturnal ejaculations in men and an overall decrease in the sexual themes of dreams.

9. Aside from those who experience certain kinds of injury, it’s a biological fact that everyone dreams. However, not everyone remembers his or her dreams.

10. Most of us dream every 90 minutes, and the longest dreams (30-45 minutes) occur in the morning.

11. The memory-recording processes of the brain seem to switch off during sleep. In so-called non-dreamers, this memory shutdown is more complete than it is for the rest. Dreams may be forgotten because they are incoherent or because they contain repressed material that the conscious mind does not wish to remember.

12. In general, pregnant women remember dreams more than other populations. This is largely due to the extreme hormonal changes during pregnancy.

13. Birth order influences the role of aggression in dreams. While men typically experience more aggressive dreams than women, a firstborn male typically sees himself in a more positive manner than do his younger male siblings. First-born females tend to have more aggressive characters in their dreams.

14. Modern studies show that children have more animal dreams than adults. The animal figures that occurred most frequently are dogs, horses, cats, snakes, bears, lions, and mythical creatures or monsters.

15. Childhood dreams are shorter than adult dreams and nearly 40% of them are nightmares, which may act as a coping mechanism.

16. People who are born blind report no visual imagery in dreams, but they experience a heightened sense of taste, touch, and smell. Those who become sightless between the ages of five and seven may have visual images in their dreams, while those who lose their vision after age seven continue to “see” in their dreams, though images tend to fade as they grow older.

17. Men’s dreams are more often set outdoors, are more action oriented, and involve strangers more often than women’s dreams do. Women’s dreams usually happen indoors and involve emotional encounters with people they know and care about. Men are more likely than women to dream about aggression, misfortune, and negative emotions such as fear, anger, anxiety, or disgust. Women’s dreams are more often friendly and positive.

18. For reasons that are unknown, males dream of males more often than females dream of males. This sexual asymmetry is universal and has emerged from at least 29 different comparisons of male and female dreams-and it holds true for children, adolescents, and adults in all parts of the world. 


Saturday, August 23, 2014

Amazing Facts About Taj Mahal

  • The construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1632 and was completed in 1653. It took a total of twenty two years to complete the construction of this monument.
  • The architecture of the Taj Mahal is a combination of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles of architecture.
  • The name of the architect of the Taj Mahal is Ahmed Lahauri.
  • The Taj Mahal was Shah Jahan’s imagination of Mumtaz’s home in paradise.
  • Around 20,000 people worked day and night for twenty two years to complete construction of the Taj Mahal.
  • The four minarets (towers) surrounding the Taj Mahal were constructed father away from the main structure than usual. This was done so that if any of them fell, they would fall away from the tomb rather than cause additional damage.
  • The cost of construction of the Taj Mahal was around Rs.320 million.
  • The Taj Mahal was constructed using the best quality marble from Rajasthan, Tibet, Afghanistan and China.
  • At different times of the day the Taj Mahal appears to be in a different colour. Some believe that these changing colours depict the changing moods of a woman.
  • The Taj Mahal is one of the wonders of the world and is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • There was a popular myth that Shah Jahan was planning to construct a black Taj Mahal across the Yamuna, this is not true.
  • Another popular myth around the Taj Mahal is that after the construction of the Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan cut off the hands of all the workers so that such a structure could not be built again. Fortunately, this is not true.
  • The Taj Mahal has a mosque in its premises, which is why the Taj Mahal is closed on Fridays and only those going for customary prayers are permitted inside the Taj Mahal.
  • Shah Jahan approached the Taj Mahal on a boat which would sail down the River Yamuna which ran behind the Taj Mahal.
  • By the late 19th century, the Taj Mahal had been defaced by the British soldiers who chiseled out precious stones from the walls of the monument. At the end of the 19th century, British Viceroy, Lord Curzon, ordered a restoration of the monument and also gifted a large lamp which hangs in the interior chambers of the Taj Mahal.
  • In 2000, an Indian writer P.N. Oak claimed that the Taj Mahal was actually a ShivTemple and filed a petition with the Supreme Court of India to excavate the site of the Taj to look for proof. His petition was rejected by the Supreme Court.
  • In 2001, the UNESCO documented more than two million visitors to the Taj Mahal.
  • India’s’ Nobel Laureate, Rabindra Nath Tagore, referred to the Taj Mahal as a “tear drop on the cheek of time”.
  • Calligraphy on the tomb of Mumtaz identifies and praises her.
  • After his death, Shah Jahan was laid to rest in the Taj Mahal besides the tomb of his wife Mumtaz.
  • A Taj-inspired luxury hotel and shopping complex is under construction in Dubai. The Taj Arabia, as the replica is called, will be four times the size of the original and will cost an estimated US $1 billion.
 

Friday, March 28, 2014

Amazing Facts About Astronomy

1.If you would place a pinhead sized piece of the Sun on the Earth you would(must) die from standing within 145 km from it.
2.Space is not a complete vacuum, there are about 3 atoms per cubic meter of space.
3.Only 5% of the universe is made up of normal matter, 25% is dark matter and 70% is dark energy.
4.Neutron stars are so dense that a teaspoon of them would be equal to the weight of the entire Earth’s population.
5.The Sun is 400 times larger than the Moon but is 400 times further away from Earth making them appear the same size.
6.Helium is the only substance in the universe that cannot be in solid form.It can’t be cold enough.
7.The pistol star is the most luminous star known 10 million times the brightness of the Sun.
8.Saturn’s moon Titan has liquid oceans of natural gas.
9.All the planets are the same age: 4.544 billion years.
10.Earths moon was most likely formed after an early planet named Theia crashed into Earth.
11.About 8000 stars are visible with naked eye from Earth. 4000 in each hemisphere, 2000 at daylight and 2000 at night.
12.All the coal, oil, gas, wood and fuel on Earth would only keep the Sun burning only for few days.
13.A full moon is nine times brighter than a half moon.
14.When the Moon is directly above your head or if you stand at the equator, you weight slightly less.
15.Every year, the Moon is moving away from Earth by 3.85 centimeters.
16.The average galaxy contains  only 40 billion stars.
17.While in space astronomers can get taller, but at the same time their hearts can get smaller.
18.Only half a billionth of the energy released by the Sun reaches Earth.
19.The light emitting from the Sun is actually 31000 years old.
20.There are at least 10^24 stars in the universe.
21.Any free-moving liquid in outer space will form itself into a sphere due to surface tension.
22. When Neil Armstrong stepped on the Moon for the first time, he said these famous words: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”
23. The distance to the planets is measured by bouncing radar signals off them and timing how long the signals take to get there and back.
24.  The red color of Mars is due to oxidized  iron in its soil.
25.  The sun weights 2,000 trillion  trillion tones – about 300,000 times as much as the Earth – even though it is made almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, the lightest gases in the Universe.